Drug absorbed administration

This route is occasionally used for drugs and fluids in emergency medicine and pediatrics when intravenous access is difficult.

This method is easy. Intradermal route, especially used for intradermal reactions. This technique requires special precautions. Exceptions include the transdermal or transmucosal routes, which are still commonly referred to as routes of administration. They are designed to produce slow, uniform absorption of a drug for hours or longer.

Since it is only in the capillaries that drugs are exchanged between blood and body cells, the capillaries must be small, to bring water and essential nutrients into close contact with the surrounding cells. The volume used is 2 ml. Exceptions include the transdermal or transmucosal routes, which are still commonly referred to as routes of administration.

Administration methods directly into the stomach include those by gastric feeding tube or gastrostomy. Substances may also be placed into the small intestinesas with a duodenal feeding tube and enteral nutrition. Any open sores in your mouth can also become irritated by the medication.

An example is an individual with uncontrolled diabetes and periodontal disease. The available preparations containing fluid are as follows: In this way drugs can pass directly to the lungs. Inhaled medications can be absorbed quickly and act both locally and systemically. Some drugs tend to bind to blood elements Some drugs dissolve more readily in body fat depots A few drugs have a strong tendency to locate in bone Drugs must be very fat soluble to enter the brain.

However, for the purposes of classification based on location of effects, the term enteral is reserved for substances with systemic effects.

The average rate of blood flow to the brain is approximately 10 times that to the resting muscles. The rate of absorption of a drug administered as a tablet or other solid dosage form is partly dependent on the location of absorption and the rate at which it is dissolved in gastrointestinal fluids.

After leaving the heart, the purified blood is circulated to the remainder of the body by large arteries. Such substances are also called inhalational, e. Any drug that remains in the body, but elsewhere than its site of action is considered to be inactive until it is redistributed.

Examples include aerosols like salbutamol; steam inhalations include tincture and Benzoin Advantages: The pH of the gastric fluid is acid.

The word "sublingual" means "under the tongue. Subcutaneous route might be used for the arm, forearm, thigh and subscapular space. The severe poisonings which occurred in France in in infants following applications of talc contaminated by hexachlorophene, neurotoxic product, shows that the skin, especially in new-born babies and infants, can absorb various molecules.

Drugs are said to be "biologically equivalent" if they yield similar concentrations of drug in blood and tissues. This vein carries the recently absorbed drug to the liver and empties into the vena cava which carries the blood returning to the heart from the rest of the body. One poorly absorbable antibiotic is vancomycinwhich is recommended by mouth as a treatment for severe Clostridium difficile colitis.

Insoluble suspensions like insulin and solids might be applied by this route. The injection of a drug directly into the patient's veins is the most rapid route of administration, resulting in the most rapid onset of action.

Much less frequently used is Intraarterial, injecting drug. Given by mouth is the most common route of drug administration, however it also the one with the most complicated pathway to the target tissues.

Most drugs are absorbed in the intestinal tract by passive transfer and usually end up in the portal circulation encountering the liver and thus high chance of passing the first-pass effect.

Absorption is the phenomenon of a drug leaving its site of administration and the extent to which it is absorbed by the body.

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Bioavailability For example, a drug that is absorbed from the stomach and intestine will pass through the liver before it reaches the circulatory system. Drug Administration. Drug Absorption; Drug Distribution; Drug Metabolism; Drug Elimination; How quickly the drug is absorbed into the bloodstream depends, in part, on the blood supply to the muscle: The sparser the blood supply, the longer it takes for the drug to be absorbed.

For the intravenous route, a needle is inserted directly into a. Sublingual administration involves placing a drug under your tongue to dissolve and absorb into your blood through the tissue there.

Buccal administration involves placing a drug between your gums and cheek, where it also dissolves and is absorbed into your blood. Both sublingual and buccal drugs come in tablets, films, or sprays.


Drugs may be applied to the external surfaces, the skin and the mucous membranes. Topical route includes: a. Enepidermic route.

When the drug is applied to the outer skin, it is called enepidermic route of drug administration.

Routes of drug administration

Examples include poultices, plasters, creams and ointments.

Drug absorbed administration
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Drug Absorption - Clinical Pharmacology - Merck Manuals Professional Edition