It jumps, provided only that possibilities of further communication are close enough at hand. The utterance, attributed to an agent as action, is responsible for the autopoietic regeneration of the system itself. It outlines the crucial difference between a theory of politics as part of a theory of society on the one hand, and political theory as a reflective theory within the political system on the other hand.
As an operating unit it is undecomposable, doing its autopoietic work only as an element of the system. A Sociological Theory, Berlin: For Luhmann, this question makes little sense as it relies on the figure of a pre-existing integrated society that then is somehow decomposed in modernity.
Picus edited by Kai-Uwe Hellmann: Maintenance is not simply a question of replication, of cultural transmission, of reproducing the same patterns under similar circumstances, e. Although at points speculating about forms of social system that do not fit in, basically Luhmann describes three different kinds of social systems, namely interaction systems, organizations, and function systems.
This warning can be formulated more pointedly: In this sense of a balancing out of information, communication takes place in all situations where one willingly or unwillingly allows another access to the meaning of his experience.
Law as a Social System, Oxford: Westdeutscher Verlag English translation: Communication by organizations is to a large degree communication which is functionally specific and, as such, part of a specific function system.
First and most important, whenever something is positively attended to, negation forms part of this experience, and affords it security. Social systems are not composed of actions of a special kind, i. Experience Erfahrung is an ongoing reconstruction of meaningfully constituted reality brought about by dealing with unfulfilled expectations, by the normalizing processing of information.
University of Chicago Press. Yet, as an organization it will invariably also utilize legal communication it enters contracts, can be sued in a labour dispute, etc. All of this is possible only in very complex societies, and even there it is by no means certain that in Experience and communication meaning structure and incident information will come to be related in a way that will stabilize this high level of complexity.
While this may sound somewhat trivial at first, it is in fact a quite radical move, as it excludes people from social systems. Moreover, social action implies communication, implies at least the communication of the meaning of the action or the intent of the actor; but it also implies the communication of the definition of the situation, of the expectation of being understood and accepted, and so on and so forth.
In Luhmann's terms, human beings are neither part of society nor of any specific systems, just as they are not part of a conversation. Most notably, he proceeds on the assumption that internally both the political and the legal system are primarily differentiated into segments that is, territorial states and national legal systems.
Politics is an important feature of society. Poetics 21 () 75 North-Holland The paradox of form: Literature and self-reference David Roberts The interest of the paper is the utilisation of Spencer Brown's Laws of Form in order to classify the question of self-reference in literary texts. Essays on Self-Reference by Professor Niklas Luhmann starting at $ Essays on Self-Reference has 1 available editions to buy at Alibris.
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